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Heated Ocean Will Bring Climate Catastrophe

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CALIFORNIA – January 12, 2019

American scientists have concluded that the ocean's water heats up faster than previously estimated. New evidence suggests that the talk of slowing climate change, which has not subsided in the last couple of decades, is unfounded.

"If you want to see where global warming is happening, look in our oceans," said Zeke Hausfather, a graduate student in the Energy and Resources Group at UC Berkeley and co-author of the paper. "Ocean heating is a very important indicator of climate change, and we have robust evidence that it is warming more rapidly than we thought."

According to the researcher, ocean heating is a very important indicator of climate change, and there is undeniable evidence that it is warming more rapidly than anyone expected.

Water heating is very important for the planet, as about 93% of the excess solar energy captured by greenhouse gases accumulates in the world's oceans. At the same time, the temperature in the depths of the seas doesn't depend on what is happening on the surface -- neither volcanic eruptions nor climatic phenomena such as El Niño.

If decisive measures to reduce CO2 emissions are not taken in the near future, the temperature of the top 6,500 feet of the world’s oceans will rise by almost 2°F by the end of the century. Scientists warn that it will cause an increase in sea level by 12 inches, on top of the already significant sea level rise caused by melting glaciers and ice sheets. Warmer oceans also contribute to stronger storms, hurricanes and extreme precipitation, the study says.

"While 2018 will be the fourth warmest year on record on the surface, it will most certainly be the warmest year on record in the oceans, as was 2017 and 2016 before that," said Hausfather, who has seen preliminary figures for 2018. "The global warming signal is a lot easier to detect if it is changing in the oceans than on the surface."

The four studies, published between 2014 and 2017, provide better estimates of past trends in ocean heat content by correcting for discrepancies between different types of ocean temperature measurements and by better accounting for gaps in measurements over time or location.

"The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report, published in 2013, showed that leading climate change models seemed to predict a much faster increase in ocean heat content over the last 30 years than was seen in observations," Hausfather said. "That was a problem, because of all things, that is one thing we really hope the models will get right."

"The facts that these corrected records now do agree with climate models is encouraging in that removes an area of big uncertainty that we previously had," he said.

For information, other scientists in large quantities also confirm fears and say that the rise of the water level in the ocean will entail inevitable consequences up to the death of mankind.

"It’s actually quite scary. We know that during the 20th century we had a rise of about 1.7mm per year. In the early part of the 20th century this [reached] about 3mm per year. We don’t want it to get much higher than 4 or 5mm per year as this would cause incredible damage to infrastructure around the world. For example, we know that New York City has over $25 billion of infrastructure at less than one meter above current sea level," states Prof Andrew Parnell of Maynooth University.

In his work, he conducted several studies of sea level changes.

Now the ocean is holding back the onslaught of global warming

Some skeptics still have a hard time believing in global warming, but scientists at McGill University argue: "The average temperature on Earth could rise by 36°C compared to the pre-industrial era."

However, while the development of such a scenario hinders the ability of the oceans to capture from the atmospheric carbon dioxide emitted from the combustion of coal, oil and gas. Since the beginning of industrialization, sea waters have “conserved” about 525 billion tons of CO2. Due to this, to date, the global temperature increase on the planet has been limited to only 2°F.

"The connection between changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the oceans is undeniable," says researcher Nicholas Bates, who studies the waters in the Sargasso Sea Southeast of the Bermuda triangle. His monitoring data show that CO2 levels at the water surface grow at about the same rate as in the atmosphere, and at a depth of 820-1470 feet – twice as fast.

However, the absorption of large amounts of CO2 in the ocean doesn't go unnoticed. Most of the substance remains dissolved, but the other smaller part reacts with water and forms carbonic acid. That is, the oceans' acidity is constantly increasing.

"The current pH level is probably the lowest in the last 2 million years," said researcher Carrie Lear of the Cardiff University. Her team analyzed how the oceans' acidity changed from 22 million years ago to the present day.

In 2017, humanity released 40.8 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere. If emissions don't decrease in the coming years, the pH of ocean waters will fall from 8.1 to 7.8 by 2100. The last time such a level could be observed on our planet in the Miocene era -- 14 million years ago when global temperatures as a result of the Earth's natural geological cycle were 5.4°F higher than today.

nasa.gov

Further laboratory and field studies are needed to fully assess the impact of acidification on marine ecosystems. But now it's obvious that it threatens many forms of life in the oceans. First and foremost invertebrate animals with calcite shells, which will simply dissolve. Biologists found also that with increasing acidity, the sense of smell of commercial fish and the work of their nervous systems deteriorate, as a result of which they become more vulnerable to predators.

Coral reefs, "skeletons" which are built of calcium carbonate suffer too. Scientists from the Carnegie Institute and the California Academy of Sciences have already conducted an experiment, passing water acidified with CO2 through the corals of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Here's what Rebecca Albright, head of research, says: "Our findings provide strong evidence that ocean acidification caused by carbon dioxide emissions will severely slow coral reef growth in the future unless we make steep and rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions."

Scientists also recorded coral reef discoloration -- a phenomenon where corals are stressed (due to warming and water acidification) and reject symbiotic algae.

In 2016, massive coral bleaching occurred in the Red and Caribbean seas, the Pacific Ocean, and Central India. One-tenth of the Great Barrier Reef was also damaged.

The reefs’ health directly affects the future not only of 25% of marine animals but also the entire Islands. "The dead reef cannot support the existence of the Islands it has created," explains journalist Kennedy Warn, who visited the Kiribati Islands. According to the forecast of the World Meteorological Organization, they could go completely underwater in 30-60 years.

Heat stroke

Another unique ability of the world’s oceans is to absorb heat from the atmosphere. The 2014 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that oceans absorb 93% of the excess heat produced by mankind. A new study published by scientists at Princeton University and the Scripps Institute of Oceanography in Nature claims that this estimate was even underestimated by 60%. New calculations state that in the period from 1991 to 2017 seawater swallowed 13 zettajoules thermal energy (the standard unit of energy, followed by 21 zeroes).

That's 150 times more heat energy each year than the energy humans produce as electricity annually. The estimate is 60% higher than that used in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report.

To understand the disaster scale, the authors propose to imagine that all the oceans have a depth of 30 ft. In this case, the current level of CO2 emissions it would have each decade was heated at 11.7°C. For comparison, the IPCC report said only about 7.2°C.

Overheating not only destroys existing ecosystems, causing animals to migrate to cooler regions but also reduces the oceans ability to retain carbon dioxide reserves.

"I like to give this analogy: if you leave a bottle of Cola in the sun, the gas will come out of it," explains the head of the study Laura Resplandi.

Thus, the heat reserves in the ocean significantly complicate the implementation of the Paris agreement. According to the authors' calculations, to keep global warming within 3.6°F, emissions into the atmosphere should be reduced by 25%.

Last drop

The most visible and frightening proof of climate change is the melting of glaciers. Since 1912, more than 80% of the famous Kilimanjaro snows have melted. Since 1992, Antarctica has lost 2.7 trillion tons of ice. The Arctic glaciers have decreased by 10% over the past 30 years. The oldest and strongest glacier began to collapse in the north of Greenland.

Twice in the record warm 2018 year, climatologists found satellite images of a vast area of open water, where previously no signs of melting were observed even in the summer.

Meltwater together with thermal expansion rapidly increases the level of the world ocean. Over the last century, it has risen by 7.7 inches. At the same time, the growth of 3 inches occurred only in the last 25 years. According to a new study published by an international team of scientists in Nature Climate Change, warming by just 3.6°F could be the point of no return that would trigger an irreversible process of melting polar ice and raise sea levels b 13 ft. by the end of the century.

For islands and coastal areas inhabitants (that is, about 10% of the world's population), that would mean a disaster. Judging by the interactive flood map Flood Maps, created on the basis of data from Google and NASA, most of the Netherlands, Northern Scotland, New York, and the Bahamas will go under the water with an increase in sea level by 13 ft.

Heated Ocean Will Bring Climate Catastrophe

As for small tropical islands, it may mean a loss of freshwater sources and becoming uninhabited as early as the middle of the 21st century due to the rising storm tides that are salting the soil.

Scientists around the world agree that in order to save the earth and delay global warming, humanity should take care of the problem of climate change and reduce man-made emissions into the atmosphere in order to prevent a catastrophe.

Author: USA Really