January 12-13: the Treaty of Cahuenga is signed, Hawaii false missile alert, and other events of the dates
A number of interesting events have taken place on January 12 and 13 in U.S. history. Here is our take on the most interesting and valuable of them.
January 12, 1942 - The National War Labor Board is established
Labor unions were still strong in the U.S. in the beginning of the 1940’s, and even the beginning of the Second World War couldn’t stop the struggle of ordinary workers for their rights. However, something had to be done to prevent acts of sabotage and, simply, to make the economy work. And even despite the fact that the Great Depression ended about a month before this event (since the beginning of the war against Japan revived the American economy due to a significant growth in defense spending), the risks of the recession were still pretty high. And, of course, striking laborers could only worsen this situation.
So, the NWLB was established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt under Executive Order 9017, with William Hammatt Davis as its chair. It was charged with acting as an arbitration tribunal in labor-management dispute cases in order to prevent work stoppages which might hinder the war effort. It administered wage control in national industries such as automobiles, shipping, railways, airlines, telegraph lines, and mining.
The Board was originally divided into twelve Regional Administrative Boards which handled both labor dispute settlement and wage stabilization functions for specific geographic regions. The national Board further decentralized in 1943, when it established special tripartite commissions and panels to deal with specific industries on a national basis.
January 13, 1847 – Mexican-American War: the Treaty of Cahuenga is signed
The Treaty of Cahuenga is sometimes referred to simply as the "Capitulation of Cahuenga", because Mexico suffered a number of humiliating defeats as a result of the war against the U.S. The war was almost over, but continued for some time after the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed, since this was not a formal treaty between nations but an informal agreement between rival military forces in which only the Californios gave up fighting.
The treaty was drafted in English and Spanish by José Antonio Carrillo and approved by American Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Mexican Governor Andrés Pico on January 13, 1847 at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now Universal City, California. The treaty called for the Californios to give up their artillery, and provided that all prisoners from both sides be immediately freed. Those Californios who promised not to again take up arms during the war and to obey the laws and regulations of the United States were allowed to peaceably return to their homes and ranchos.
Californios were to be allowed the same rights and privileges as were allowed to citizens of the United States, and were not to be compelled to take an oath of allegiance until a treaty of peace was signed between the United States and Mexico, and were given the privilege of leaving the country if they wished to do so.
January 13, 2018 - Hawaii false missile alert
It’s been a year since nuclear war happened in Hawaii! At least, that is what the locals were told by the mistake, which caused panic among them. On this date one year ago, a false ballistic missile alert was issued via the Emergency Alert System and Commercial Mobile Alert System over television, radio, and cell phones in Hawaii. The alert stated that there was an incoming ballistic missile threat to Hawaii, advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded "This is not a drill".
That’s a message you really don’t want to get early in the morning. They went out at 8:07 am, local time. However, no civil defense outdoor warning sirens were authorized or sounded by the state, which confused the locals even more.
Thankfully, the panic didn’t last very long as a second message, sent 38 minutes later, described the first as a "false alarm". State officials blamed a miscommunication during a drill at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency for the first message.
Governor David Ige later publicly apologized for the erroneous alert, which caused panic and disruption throughout the state. The Federal Communications Commission and the Hawaii House of Representatives launched investigations into the incident, leading to the resignation of the state's emergency management administrator.
Anyway, the state of Hawaii is still there, peaceful and safe: no “fallout” detected, no surf sites annihilated!
These are the most notable events in U.S. history that occurred on January 12 and 13, at least in our view.