January 19-20: the Battle of Mill Springs, Shutdown 2018, and other events of the dates
A number of interesting events have taken place on January 19 and 20 in U.S. history. Here is our take on the most interesting and valuable of them.
January 19, 1862 – American Civil War: Offensive in Eastern Kentucky: Battle of Mill Springs
As the American Civil War was gaining momentum, both armies were continually gaining strength. The Battle of Mill Springs, also known as the Battle of Fishing Creek in Confederate terminology, and the Battle of Logan's Cross Roads in Union terminology, was fought in Wayne and Pulaski counties, near current Nancy, Kentucky, on January 19, 1862. At that point in time, when the main battles were yet to be fought, Kentucky wasn’t a major battlefield in the war, and the Battle of Mill Springs was one of the first important ones there.
What led to this battle? In late 1861, Confederate General Felix Zollicoffer guarded Cumberland Gap, the eastern end of a defensive line extending from Columbus, Kentucky. In November he advanced west into Kentucky to strengthen control in the area around Somerset and made Mill Springs his winter quarters, taking advantage of a strong defensive position. Union General George H. Thomas, ordered to break up the army of Major General George B. Crittenden (Zollicoffer's superior), sought to drive the Confederates across the Cumberland River. His force arrived at Logan's Crossroads on January 17, 1862, where he waited for Brigade General Albin Schoepf's troops from Somerset to join him.
The Confederate force under Crittenden attacked Thomas at Logan's Crossroads at dawn on January 19. Union forces were victorious, but both sides suffered heavy losses for the early stage of the American Civil War, as the Union suffered 39 killed and 207 wounded, while the Confederates suffered 125 killed and 404 wounded. Mill Springs was the first significant Union victory of the War, though it was soon eclipsed by Ulysses S. Grant's victories at Forts Henry and Donelson.
January 20, 1949 - The Point Four Program is announced
President Truman announced the Point Four Program in his inaugural address on January 20, 1949. What was it all about?
Point Four was the first global U.S. foreign aid program, taking inspiration from the nation's wartime Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA), which extended technical assistance to Latin American countries. Nelson Rockefeller, the administrator of the OCIAA, strongly supported the establishment of Point Four in congressional hearings. So, since the Rockefellers were involved in it, the Point Four Program was probably a part of their conspiracy, making President Truman the executor of their plans. The beginning of the Cold War was basically the era when powerful Americans clans could do everything with the policy of the U.S.
According to the U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson though, it was the initiative of the then legal counsel to the president Clark Clifford, who suggested to President Truman to initiate the assistance on a worldwide basis, and to include the issue in his inaugural address. According to Robert Schlesinger's book, White House Ghosts, it was Benjamin H. Hardy who first came up with the concept. After the suggestion was as good as lost in the foggy miasma of the State Department's bureaucracy, Hardy decided to bring the idea to the attention of Truman aide George Elsey. Elsey and Clifford went on to herald the abstraction into policy. Hardy eventually left the Department of State and became the new Technical Cooperation Administration's Chief Information Officer. So, the Deep State adepts influenced this program just as much as the Rockefellers did.
January 20, 2018 - Shutdown 2018
Many ordinary people have already forgotten that the U.S. already went through a massive shutdown of state institutions last year as the this year’s has already become the longest yet.
The United States federal government shutdown of January 2018 began at midnight EST on Saturday, January 20, 2018, and ended two days after, on the evening of Monday, January 22. The shutdown began after a failure to pass legislation to fund government operations and agencies. This stemmed from disputes over the extension of status of persons affected by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration policy, and therefore whether those covered under the program should face deportation.
There was also a dispute over whether funding should be allocated towards building a Mexico–United States border wall, a keystone policy during Donald Trump's presidential campaign: The same as with the current shutdown. According to estimates by the New York Times, 692,900 workers were furloughed during the shutdown.
These are the most notable events in U.S. history that occurred on January 19 and 20, at least in our view.