January 26-27: the End of the “Noble train of artillery” march, the Point No Point Treaty is signed, and other events of the dates
A number of interesting events have taken place on January 26 and 27 in U.S. history. Here is our take on the most interesting and valuable of them.
January 26, 1855 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed
Another act of Native American suppression turned 164 years old yesterday. The Point No Point Treaty was signed on January 26, 1855 at Point No Point, on the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. The governor of the Washington Territory, Isaac Stevens, convened the treaty council on January 25, with the S'Klallam, Chimakum, and Skokomish tribes. Under the terms of the treaty, the original inhabitants of northern Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Peninsula were to cede ownership of their land in exchange for small reservations along Hood Canal and a payment of $60,000 from the federal government.
The treaty required the natives to trade only with the United States, to free all their slaves, and not to acquire any new slaves. What a humiliating treaty for the Native Americans! Unfortunately, they had no other option. They were forced to sign the treaty to end the war they had been losing. On the first day of the council, treaty provisions were translated from English to the Chinook language for the 1,200 natives who assembled at the sand spit they called Hadskis, across Admiralty Inlet from Whidbey Island. There’s a lighthouse there today.
Of course, Skokomish, who was the leader Hool-hol-tan, expressed concern about finding sufficient food in the new locations and did not like the lands being offered as a reservation. And, of course, Americans would never provide Indians with good lands. L'Hau-at-scha-uk, a To-antioch, was afraid he would die if he left his ancestral lands. Others objected that the land was being bought too cheaply once they understood what it was worth. But no one from the American side seemed to care.
January 26, 1856 – Yakima War: the Battle of Seattle
A year after the Point No Point Treaty was signed there was a new clash in the same direction. The Battle of Seattle was a January 26, 1856 attack by Native Americans on Seattle, Washington. At the time, Seattle was a settlement in the Washington Territory that had recently named itself after Chief Seattle (Sealth), a leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish peoples of central Puget Sound.
The Indian attack failed, as backed by artillery fire and supported by Marines from the United States Navy sloop-of-war Decatur, anchored in Elliott Bay (Seattle's harbor, then called Duwam-sh Bay), the settlers suffered only two deaths.
Interestingly, it is still not known if any of the Native American raiders died, though the historian Phelps writes that they later "would admit" to 28 dead and 80 wounded. The battle, part of the multi-year Puget Sound War or Yakima War, lasted a single day.
January 27, 1776 - the End of the “Noble train of artillery” march
January 27 marks the anniversary of an interesting event directly connected with the American Revolutionary War, as the so-called “noble train of artillery,” also known as the Knox Expedition, led by Continental Army Colonel Henry Knox to transport heavy weaponry that had been captured at Fort Ticonderoga to the Continental Army camps in Massachusetts during the winter of 1775-1776 came to an end, arriving in Cambridge.
Quite impressive this march was, as Knox went to Ticonderoga in November 1775 and moved 60 tons of cannons and other armaments over the course of three winter months by boat, horse, ox-drawn sledges, and manpower along poor-quality roads, across two semi-frozen rivers, and through the forests and swamps of the lightly inhabited Berkshires to the Boston area, covering approximately 300 miles.
A true feat it was in the context of the time! And, indeed, historians agree, as one of them, Victor Brooks has called Knox's exploit "one of the most stupendous feats of logistics" of the entire American Revolutionary War. The route which he followed is now known as the Henry Knox Trail, and the states of New York and Massachusetts have erected markers along the way.
These are the most notable events in U.S. history that occurred on January 26 and 27, at least in our view.