February 2-3: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Is Signed, the Beginning of the Battle of Manila, and Other Events of the Dates
A number of interesting events have taken place on February 2 and 3 in U.S. history. Here is our take on the most interesting and valuable of them.
February 2, 1848 – Mexican-American War: the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed
Thus, the war was over! The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, was the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848. It was a huge victory for the U.S. and a humiliating defeat for Mexico.
With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the U.S. to pay $15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to $5 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.
Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights.
The U.S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14. The opponents of the treaty were led by the Whigs who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest Destiny in general, and rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States of America.
February 3, 1944 – Second World War: Pacific Theater: the End of the Battle of Kwajalein
The Battle of Kwajalein was fought as part of the Pacific campaign of World War II and marked a very important event from the strategic point of view.
It took place from January31-3 February 1944, on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Employing the hard-learned lessons of the Battle of Tarawa, the United States launched a successful twin assault on the main islands of Kwajalein in the south and Roi-Namur in the north. The Japanese defenders put up stiff resistance, although outnumbered and under-prepared. The determined defense of Roi-Namur left only 51 survivors of an original garrison of 3,500, which speaks to the intensity of the battle.
For the U.S., the battle represented both the next step in its island-hopping march to Japan and a significant morale victory because it was the first time the Americans had penetrated the "outer ring" of the Japanese Pacific sphere. For the Japanese, the battle represented the failure of the beach-line defense.
Japanese defenses prepared in-depth, and the Battles of Peleliu, Guam, and the Marianas proved far more costly to the U.S. Yet, the main battles of the final period of WWII in the Pacific were yet to be fought.
February 3, 1945 – Second World War: Pacific Theater: the Beginning of the Battle of Manila
And this is just what we meant saying “the main battles were yet to be fought,”as exactly one year after the end of the Battle of Kwajalein came the battle of Manila.
This battle, which lasted for a month until March 3, was a major battle of the Philippine campaign of 1944-45, during the Second World War. It was fought by American and Filipino forces against Japanese troops in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The month-long battle, which resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific Theater.
Japanese forces committed mass murder against Filipino civilians during the battle. Along with the massive loss of life, the battle also destroyed the architectural and cultural heritage dating back to the city's foundation. The battle ended the almost three years of Japanese military occupation in the Philippines (1942–1945). The city's capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthur's key to victory in the campaign of reconquest. It is the last of the many battles fought within Manila's history. As a result of this severe clash, American lost more than a thousand soldiers, while Japanese forces suffered a loss of no less than 16,000 men.
These are the most notable events in U.S. history that occurred on February 2 and 3, at least in our view.